Brigitte Studer is a historian and professor emerita of contemporary history at the University of Bern. A specialist in gender history and social and political history, she has written extensively on political activism, international Communism and Stalinism, citizenship, welfare and employment protection as well as on female suffrage and women’s movements. Her books have been published in English, German, French, Italian, Russian and Turkish. She has taught at the Universities of Geneva and Zurich and at Washington University (St.Louis, USA). She has also been a visiting professor at the EHESS in Paris and at the University of Strathclyde, and senior visiting fellow at the University of Vienna and at the University of London’s Institute of Historical Research.