Philippe Askenazy is a specialist of labour and employment relations. He is a senior economist at the French National Center for Scientific Research, and a fellow of NIESR (London) and IZA (Bonn). He is also a columnist for Le Monde. He is the co-initiator of the collective called the Appalled Economists, a group aiming to stimulate collective thinking and public expression of economists who do not resign themselves to the predominant neoliberal orthodox doctrine. His Manifesto of the Appalled Economists, written with three co-authors, was translated into dozens of languages.